Creation of Tu95, the Bear

九月 17, 2007 at 23:56 | 張貼於aeroplane, history | 發表留言


Kevin Myers: Put the cold war back on ice and get those skies growling: “But by evil mischance, three B-29s made emergency landings in the Soviet Far East. The aircraft designer Andrei Tupolev decided to reverse-engineer the B-29. That is to say every single screw, every singe valve, every single light-bulb, every single switch and toggle and ashtray and button – over a million parts in all – were painstakingly and perfectly copied, and then assembled in the greatest act of flattery in industrial history. So confident was Tupolev of the soundness of the Boeing design that his version was put directly into production, without any test flights, and over 4,000 Tu-4 Bull bombers were manufactured for the Soviet air forces. Opposing them were 2,000 identical B-29s of the USAF. It was the only time in history that two world powers equipped their rival fleets with precisely the same bomber.
The creation of the B-29 had been the most complex project in aviation history, and the capture of the B-29s enabled Tupolev to learn in a few weeks what had taken the US many years to discover: the steepest aviation learning-curve ever.

However, the Tu-4 could not reach the USA, and if there’s one thing that dear old Stalin wanted, it was the ability to turn New York into a Siberia. So after various intermediary experiments, Tupolev produced the Tu-95, which basically consisted of the B-29/Tu-4 fuselage, but with huge new swept-back wings and four colossal turboprop engines.
The resulting Soviet/US fusion was one of the most extraordinary aerial confections ever. The Tu-95 had a range of over 10,000 miles, could cruise at 500mph at an altitude of 50,000 feet carrying a nuclear bomb. With air-to-air refuelling, the Bear – as a horrified NATO called it – could reach anywhere on Earth. Like its American counterpart, the B-52 Stratofortress, the Tu-95 has continued to operate in the Russian Air Force while several iterations of bomber design have come and gone. Part of the reason for this longevity was its suitability, like the B-52, for modification to different missions. Whereas the Tu-95 was originally intended to drop nuclear weapons, it was subsequently modified to perform a wide range of roles, such as the deployment of cruise missiles, maritime patrol (Tu-142 Bear-F), AWACS platform (Tu-126) and even civilian airliner (Tu-114). During and after the Cold War, the Tu-95’s utility as a weapons platform has only been eclipsed by its usefulness as a diplomatic icon. When a patrolling Tu-95 appears off the coast of the United States or one of its allies, it may not be the technological menace that it was in its heyday, but it is still a potent and visible symbol of the Russian capability to project military power over great distances.

The Soviet Union did not assign official “popular names" to its aircraft, although unofficial nicknames were common. Unusually, Soviet pilots found the Tu-95/Tu-142’s NATO reporting name, ‘Bear,’ to be a fitting nickname, given the aircraft’s large size, ‘lumbering’ maneuverability and speed, and large arsenal. It is often called Bear in Russian service. An anecdotal story states that it was actually a Russian crew who had the privilege of assigning the NATO reporting name; during the aircraft’s Paris Airshow debut, a Western reporter asked the crew what the plane’s name was. The pilot responded, “it can’t be anything but a bear.

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Victorian Harbour Sailor

九月 17, 2007 at 03:37 | 張貼於sailing, victoria harbour | 發表留言

Residence: overlook the harbour
Workplace: across the harbour
Passtime: sailing in the harbour
watching the harbour
Community work: protect the harbour

MiG-21I "Analog"

九月 16, 2007 at 21:23 | 張貼於Uncategorized | 發表留言



MiG-21I “Analog": “AnalogFlying test-bed for research and development of Tu-144 passenger airplane wing. Two prototypes were built. First was used to develop elevon control system for tailless aircraft. All four elevon sections were based all over wingspan. The second was tested at the Gromov Flight Research Institute. The wing leading edge was testing with sweepback of 78. In the grotto behind the cockpit and on the top of the fin special cameras were set up. In the nose and tail part of the aircraft a 290 kg remote mass balance weight was used to change the centre-of-gravity. On 18 April 1968 the maiden flight was performed by test pilot O.V.Gudkov. Till the end of 1969 140 flights were performed, the altitude of 19000 m and speed of 2120 km/h to 2,06M were reached. After completion of main test program during performing of aerobatic flying on the first prototype FRI test pilot V.Konstantinov crashed, the second prototype was handed over to Monino Air Force Museum after carrying out of tests and training of Tu-144 pilots. On the basis of an MiG-21I be ordered activities on creation armoured attack (shturmovick) an MiG-21LSH under the scheme «tailless aircraft»."
http://www.m-triad.net/cgi-bin/spboard/board.cgi?id=aero&action=view&gul=16&page=27&go_cnt=0

MiG-21I "Analog"

九月 16, 2007 at 21:23 | 張貼於Uncategorized | 發表留言



MiG-21I “Analog": “AnalogFlying test-bed for research and development of Tu-144 passenger airplane wing. Two prototypes were built. First was used to develop elevon control system for tailless aircraft. All four elevon sections were based all over wingspan. The second was tested at the Gromov Flight Research Institute. The wing leading edge was testing with sweepback of 78. In the grotto behind the cockpit and on the top of the fin special cameras were set up. In the nose and tail part of the aircraft a 290 kg remote mass balance weight was used to change the centre-of-gravity. On 18 April 1968 the maiden flight was performed by test pilot O.V.Gudkov. Till the end of 1969 140 flights were performed, the altitude of 19000 m and speed of 2120 km/h to 2,06M were reached. After completion of main test program during performing of aerobatic flying on the first prototype FRI test pilot V.Konstantinov crashed, the second prototype was handed over to Monino Air Force Museum after carrying out of tests and training of Tu-144 pilots. On the basis of an MiG-21I be ordered activities on creation armoured attack (shturmovick) an MiG-21LSH under the scheme «tailless aircraft»."
http://www.m-triad.net/cgi-bin/spboard/board.cgi?id=aero&action=view&gul=16&page=27&go_cnt=0

MiG-21I ;Analog

九月 16, 2007 at 21:23 | 張貼於aeroplane, MiG | 發表留言
標籤:



MiG-21I “Analog": “AnalogFlying test-bed for research and development of Tu-144 passenger airplane wing. Two prototypes were built. First was used to develop elevon control system for tailless aircraft. All four elevon sections were based all over wingspan. The second was tested at the Gromov Flight Research Institute. The wing leading edge was testing with sweepback of 78. In the grotto behind the cockpit and on the top of the fin special cameras were set up. In the nose and tail part of the aircraft a 290 kg remote mass balance weight was used to change the centre-of-gravity. On 18 April 1968 the maiden flight was performed by test pilot O.V.Gudkov. Till the end of 1969 140 flights were performed, the altitude of 19000 m and speed of 2120 km/h to 2,06M were reached. After completion of main test program during performing of aerobatic flying on the first prototype FRI test pilot V.Konstantinov crashed, the second prototype was handed over to Monino Air Force Museum after carrying out of tests and training of Tu-144 pilots. On the basis of an MiG-21I be ordered activities on creation armoured attack (shturmovick) an MiG-21LSH under the scheme «tailless aircraft»."
http://www.m-triad.net/cgi-bin/spboard/board.cgi?id=aero&action=view&gul=16&page=27&go_cnt=0

MiG-21I "Analog"

九月 16, 2007 at 13:23 | 張貼於Uncategorized | 發表留言



MiG-21I “Analog": “AnalogFlying test-bed for research and development of Tu-144 passenger airplane wing. Two prototypes were built. First was used to develop elevon control system for tailless aircraft. All four elevon sections were based all over wingspan. The second was tested at the Gromov Flight Research Institute. The wing leading edge was testing with sweepback of 78. In the grotto behind the cockpit and on the top of the fin special cameras were set up. In the nose and tail part of the aircraft a 290 kg remote mass balance weight was used to change the centre-of-gravity. On 18 April 1968 the maiden flight was performed by test pilot O.V.Gudkov. Till the end of 1969 140 flights were performed, the altitude of 19000 m and speed of 2120 km/h to 2,06M were reached. After completion of main test program during performing of aerobatic flying on the first prototype FRI test pilot V.Konstantinov crashed, the second prototype was handed over to Monino Air Force Museum after carrying out of tests and training of Tu-144 pilots. On the basis of an MiG-21I be ordered activities on creation armoured attack (shturmovick) an MiG-21LSH under the scheme «tailless aircraft»."
http://www.m-triad.net/cgi-bin/spboard/board.cgi?id=aero&action=view&gul=16&page=27&go_cnt=0

Origins of German jet power

九月 16, 2007 at 08:33 | 張貼於aeroplane, jet | 發表留言

Origins of German jet power: “HeS 3B July of 1939 saw the first flight tests, using an He 118, of von Ohain’s HeS 3B centrifugal turbojet.
HeS 3B Cutaway view of the Heinkel HeS 3B in the Deutsches Museum. Picture shows a rebuilt example after the war. HeS 3B In 1939 the HeS 3B produced a thrust of 450 – 500 kp. The axial low-pressure compressor had eight blades while the centrifugal-flow compressor had 16. He 178 A second HeS 3B was fitted to the He 178 prototype which made the first true purely on turbojet power on august 27, 1939.
Although no spectacular performer, the succes of the He 178 made an enormous impact on the RLM and swelled the ranks of jet aircraft protagonists. Video First flight of the He-178 (6.6Mb).
http://www.xs4all.nl/%7Ejqmgrdyk/jetpower/He-178.mpg

Origins of German jet power

九月 16, 2007 at 08:33 | 張貼於aeroplane, jet | 發表留言

Origins of German jet power: “HeS 3B July of 1939 saw the first flight tests, using an He 118, of von Ohain’s HeS 3B centrifugal turbojet.
HeS 3B Cutaway view of the Heinkel HeS 3B in the Deutsches Museum. Picture shows a rebuilt example after the war. HeS 3B In 1939 the HeS 3B produced a thrust of 450 – 500 kp. The axial low-pressure compressor had eight blades while the centrifugal-flow compressor had 16. He 178 A second HeS 3B was fitted to the He 178 prototype which made the first true purely on turbojet power on august 27, 1939.
Although no spectacular performer, the succes of the He 178 made an enormous impact on the RLM and swelled the ranks of jet aircraft protagonists. Video First flight of the He-178 (6.6Mb).
http://www.xs4all.nl/%7Ejqmgrdyk/jetpower/He-178.mpg

Origins of German jet power

九月 16, 2007 at 00:33 | 張貼於aeroplane, jet | 發表留言

Origins of German jet power: “HeS 3B July of 1939 saw the first flight tests, using an He 118, of von Ohain’s HeS 3B centrifugal turbojet.
HeS 3B Cutaway view of the Heinkel HeS 3B in the Deutsches Museum. Picture shows a rebuilt example after the war. HeS 3B In 1939 the HeS 3B produced a thrust of 450 – 500 kp. The axial low-pressure compressor had eight blades while the centrifugal-flow compressor had 16. He 178 A second HeS 3B was fitted to the He 178 prototype which made the first true purely on turbojet power on august 27, 1939.
Although no spectacular performer, the succes of the He 178 made an enormous impact on the RLM and swelled the ranks of jet aircraft protagonists. Video First flight of the He-178 (6.6Mb).
http://www.xs4all.nl/%7Ejqmgrdyk/jetpower/He-178.mpg

二戰中的航空新武器和新技術

九月 15, 2007 at 23:02 | 張貼於aeroplane, jet | 發表留言

二戰中的航空新武器和新技術(3)–軍事–人民網: 1930年1月,英國皇家空軍軍官F·惠特爾獲得了渦輪噴氣式發動機的專利。1937年4月12日,由他領導研制的世界上第一台離心式渦輪噴氣發動機開始進行台架試車,其推力為200多公斤(2千牛)。同年3月,德國人J·P·馮·奧亨等人設計的第一種渦噴發動機HeS-3B已經在德國空轉成功。HeS-3B為軸流式噴氣發動機,最大推力約500公斤。 1939年6月15日,德國的亨克爾He.176型飛機成1939年6月15日,德國的亨克爾He.176型飛機成功地進行了第一次載人噴氣動力飛 行,它的動力裝置為1台火箭發動機。同年8月27日,德國人試制的世界上第一架渦輪噴氣式飛機亨克爾He.178進行了一次劃時代的試飛,動力裝置為 HeS-3B型發動機的改進型。1941年5月15日,英國的第一架渦輪噴氣式飛機格洛斯特E28/39首飛成功,動力裝置為1台W-1型發動機。 1942年7月28日,德國人試制的世界上第一種實用的噴氣式戰斗機Me.262試飛成功,並連續創造了世界飛行速度紀錄,最大平飛速度達到了850公裡 /小時。同年10月2日,美國也試飛了一架P-59型噴氣式戰斗機。

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