從愛麗絲夢遊中國到沃爾瑪史觀 .孫隆基

十二月 12, 2012 at 09:52 | 張貼於Uncategorized | 發表留言
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從愛麗絲夢遊中國到沃爾瑪史觀 .孫隆基
隨著中國崛起,歐、美、日在世界經濟大餅佔份變小,「西方中心論」漸失市場。史學界開始重估世界近代化過程裏中國的關鍵角色,發現唐宋明清時中國領先西方,經濟運作最接近自由市場模式。

 


 

(編者按:作者孫隆基為著名歷史學家、香港人,著有《中國文化的深層結構》等書。現任教於台灣嘉義縣國立中正大學。)

二零一零迪士尼版的《愛麗絲夢遊仙境》按時代需要,將原著「重新發明」:愛麗絲不是一個女童,而是逃婚少女,她從幻境歷險歸來後,勇敢地在眾人面前與安排婚姻下的未婚夫取消婚約,然後轉向那位化為泡影的未來家公,說:我不嫁給你兒子,讓我們當生意的夥伴吧!她成為老頭子旗下一名見習生,建議如今的市場在中國,並請纓前往,片尾是愛麗絲擔任公司代表,踏上前往中國的輪船。

愛麗絲還是比美國的沃爾瑪(Wal-Mart)——世界最大的零售商——晚了一步!沃爾瑪在一九九六年已打入中國超巨型的市場,並調動中國龐大無比的廉價勞力製造大眾消費的日用品。美國於二零零一年遭恐怖分子襲擊後,愛國主義劇漲,搖國旗插國旗變成時尚,國旗在沃爾瑪百貨公司是一桶一桶地擺在地上,我發現都是made in China,不無感慨地說:兩國一旦開戰,美國將怎麼辦?

從我的歷史本行觀察:西方最近二十年興起的全球史以及比較歷史學的最新動向倒是蠻能掌握時代脈搏的。比較歷史學早已存在,但它與後現代主義的「去中心化」以及後殖民主義的「西方中心論批判」匯流則屬晚近。在二戰以前,能挑戰西方之優勢者唯日本,但後者志在「脫亞入歐」,並無動搖西式進步軌跡的典範性。只有當歐、美、日本在世界經濟這塊大餅的分享片塊開始變小,同時——似乎很弔詭——在老牌的反帝意識形態馬列主義也過氣後,這個典範才真正動搖。

從維多利亞時代至二戰後,「西方中心論」乃世界史——尤其是近世史——的圭臬。十九世紀至二十世紀初,西方優越論表達為人種優良論,後漸以文化優秀論替代:西方世俗思維之優勝在於有啟蒙運動的理性主義、宗教信仰上的獨特性則是能滋長資本主義的新教倫理。至二戰以後,美國學術界將西方中心論改裝成現代化學說與經濟成長論:美國代表整個西方成為「現代化」國家的典範,非西方國家非歸入「傳統」、「前現代」,即正值現代化之痛楚;經濟成長論亦以美式消費社會為最後鵠的,其他社會不是未成長,就是正在「起飛」中。

中國史學囿於唯物史觀

這固然是資本主義的「現代化論」與「起飛論」,社會主義陣營不予焉。當越戰白熱、中國文革如火如荼時,林彪提「世界鄉村包圍世界城市」全球戰略,不可謂不左,但仍不啻肯定西方乃中心、中國與第三世界是邊緣。中國史學受唯物史觀枷銬之惡果,至今仍未擺脫將自身相當發達的傳統社會硬生生地「封建化(=中古化)」的陋見,非得把西方「資本主義」生產方式挺到歷史軌道最前列不可。

這也是為什麼較晚近的後現代主義「去中心論」必待馬克思主義史學偃旗息鼓,方能有所作為。在世界反帝浪潮高漲的一九七零年代,美國左翼史學的創新在提出「現代世界體系」之說:華勒斯坦(Immanuel Wallerstein)將資本主義的發展史簡約為西方之攫取世界中心的地位、把非西方地區淪為外緣,並在兩者間製造中間地帶。但華勒斯坦遲至一九八九年方出版《現代的世界體系》(The Modern World-System)第三冊,已是明日黃花。

唯物史觀的基礎是經濟決定論,何謂先進、何謂落後,全視生產方式,毫無主觀餘地,在方法學上就與後現代、後結構、後殖民諸般當代顯學講究「詮釋策略」大異其趣。但唯物史觀其實仍是一種「詮釋策略」。與華勒斯坦同代、同路數的法蘭克(Andre Gunder Frank)不得不承認:相對西方來說、非西方世界客觀地處於「不發展」(undevelopment),但他說這個不發展正是被西方「發展」而成,蓋西方的全球資本主義體系有賴世界範圍的資本累積,實即帝國主義。待到一九九八年,他開始迎合「去西方中心論」潮流,發表了《白銀資本:重估全球經濟的亞洲時代》(ReOrient: Global Economy in the Asian Age),但在客觀上仍要求必須有一個中心,於是鴉片戰爭前的中國遂被他重新發明為「中心」。

這個「重新導向東方」之矯枉過正,在於把西方的經濟發展全說成是掠奪、西方的技術突破乃工業間諜行為,科學革命與工業革命被說成微不足道,只因為它們與西方沾上邊,而不理會它們乃普世之業。這位馬克思主義者亦步亦趨後現代後殖民主義,搞得不湯不水。他這部一九九八年著述之唯一貢獻在於指出:西方未「起飛」前,世界上大半的白銀都集中在中國。

明清累積世界過半白銀

明清的中國累積了世上過半的白銀乃當代「沃爾瑪史觀」的基石。在論及此之前,必須先交代另一個學術傳承——比較歷史學——的系譜。民國初年,內藤湖南的「宋代乃世界近代化之早春」命題已被介紹至中國。但內藤志不在去西方中心論,而正是用西式「時代」觀淘汰中國的朝代觀,並診斷現代中國已過了早春,乃遲暮的古典文化(如雅典),東亞雄飛猛進之業當留給壯年(如羅馬)的日本。他雖為日本大東亞主義鼓手,其「宋代乃世界近代化之早春」說仍有賣點,它是「唐宋變革論」的老祖宗。

「唐宋變革論」透過澳洲的中國史學家伊懋可(Mark Elvin)一九七三的《中國的歷史格局》(The Pattern of the Chinese Past)闖入歐美全球史視野,導致美國全球史家麥克尼爾(William McNeill)自我修正。麥氏在一九六三的《西方的興起》裏把世界史分三段:中東支配時代、歐亞文化平衡、西方興起時代。其本意與斯賓格勒的《西方的沒落》打對台,卻不料變成旗幟鮮明的西方中心史觀。麥克尼爾在一九八二年《逐富競強》(The Pursuit of Power)中修正陳說,將宋代升格為第三期之序曲,近代化由宋代開了頭,後面的路則由西方走下去。

八方風雨會中州:全球史、比較歷史學、後現代史學、甚至改弦的馬克思主義都合力重估世界近代化過程裏中國之關鍵性。美國的中國史學界自不能置身事外,較早時,已有對費正清戰後初期的「挑戰與反應」模式之揚棄、力圖替中國找回自主性,但此意圖反而把中國史置於世界史之外。能把對中國的重估與全球史掛是晚近的事。

洛杉磯加州大學歷史系教授王國斌在一九九七年發表的《轉變的中國:歷史變遷與歐洲經驗的局限》(China Transformed: Historical Change and the Limits of European Experience)中仍只能比較中國與西歐兩地,但他已警覺:以明清的江南地區與歐洲的英法荷比地帶作比較,才恰當。他亦分判了亞當‧斯密式自由市場、商業資本、工業資本三個層次。在第一層次上,十八世紀末的江南與西歐先進帶幾無差別,真正的「分流」始自西方發動煤和蒸汽的能源革命,其所以能為之,必先超越斯密式自由市場,走向商業資本之集中,迨至工業資本,則由集中淪為壟斷。與此相反,斯密式自由市場乃互通有無、讓大家都有一口飯吃,其理想形態最符合明清時代的中國:市場在中國是在政府指引下發揮「平準」與「均輸」功能、以豐補匱、以盈填缺、防止地域間與貧富間過度分化。市場在西方的操作卻導致城鄉對立、農村破產、鄉下人被驅入工廠、階級矛盾激化,中國政府「教」與「養」的功能歐洲人則留給教會擔當。中國政府的功能是防止社會過度分化、民間資本無法集中,政府對田賦又能全面支配、無需與地方勢力討價還價,中國抗租抗稅運動遂無走上納稅人爭取代議制的道路,更無資產階級奪權這回事。

王國斌中西何時「分流」的命題,在彭慕蘭(Kenneth Pomeranz)二零零零年的《大分流﹕中國、歐洲,和現代世界經濟的形成》(The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World Economy)中獲進一步發揮。彭氏乃兼具全球史視野的中國史家,但此處只能將他的基本論點簡化:如無中國之存在,西方之「起飛」幾無可能。在近代初期,西方征服海洋、用殖民、消滅土著與販奴締造大西洋經濟圈,但要打入一貫先進的印度洋與遠東等古老經濟中心,則欠缺一張入門券,美洲的銀礦適時提供了票價。美洲銀流固然將地球上白銀流通量翻了不知多少倍,但如不存在能吸納之容體,亦無濟於事。君不見白銀先經西班牙人之手,封建制的西班牙虛不受補、反被其淹死!幸好宋代以來的中國已發展成一塊超巨型大海綿:中國較西方離封建制更遠,市場活動不受基爾特(Guild,行會)約束,生產過程也不集中,其小環節都得通過市場相扣(這符合讓大家都有一口飯吃的原理),唯物史觀使我們誤信中國是「封建的」自然經濟,其實明清的中國乃最接近阿當‧斯密的理想,這個龐然大經濟體再加上政府稅制轉趨銀兩化,需要的是天文數字的通貨,使中國恆存一股白銀飢渴,西方無商品可以賣給中國,卻極需要中國的絲、瓷器和茶,唯有付現。正是中國這塊大海綿臌脹了西方的貿易額,在其經濟起飛期幫助後者累積巨額商業資本。

英國借印度市場起飛

《大分流》面世後,「全球一盤棋」的歷史視野蔚為風尚。二零零八年約翰‧達爾文(John Darwin)的《帖木兒之後:從一四零零至二零零零的全球帝國之興衰》(After Tamerlane: The Rise and Fall of Global Empires, 1400-2000)用印度扮演中國的角色,指出英國經濟起飛是由於宰制了印度(尤其是孟加拉)龐大的紡織業,使它成為全球最大的民生用品供應商,累積了巨額商業資本,並對本國的紡織業製造了競爭壓力,迫使它走上大規模機械化生產,在本國工業資本抬頭後,英國又倒過頭來把印度去工業化,使印度淪為英國機器製造品的市場。

西方中心論並無應聲而到。一九九二年福山(Francis Fukuyama)的《歷史之終結與最後一人》(The End of History and the Last Man)乃最不害臊的西方中心論。近來(二零零九)因為有人寫了《當中國統治世界》(When China Rules the World)一類言過其實的暢銷書,激發伊恩‧摩里斯(Ian Morris)於二零一零年發表《為何西方目前仍在統治》(Why the West Rules—For Now)。他認為自己在西方中心論與王國斌、彭慕蘭等「加州學派」兩極之間走出一條第三路線:西方目前之優勢並非先天或長期以來已鎖定,但亦非如「加州學派」所說乃短期僥倖所致。他仿照聯合國公布的國家發展指數,列出測量發展的四大標準:(一)都市化;(二)耗熱量;(三)資訊技術;(四)作戰能力,以圖表上的線條升降勾畫出過去五千年東西方你追我趕的軌跡,顯示西方超前的頻率較高,只有從宋代至明代,西方線條明顯地呈現下沉凹弧,降到了中國線條之下——也就是「加州學派」認為西方藉中國存在這個偶因翻騰了上去的時段。如果摩里斯是西方中心論的最新版,那是比福山高明多了。但進入新千年後,圖表上東西兩條線幾乎已貼在一起,因此誰先誰後,更無鎖定可言,對人類的未來已變得無關宏旨。蓋摩里斯的思維亦包含了另一類史學新潮流——環境史觀,例如戴蒙(Jared Diamond)在二零零五年發表的《大崩壞》(Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed)。在過去五千年的東西競跑中,雙方都曾碰到了天花板而導致倒退,因此已經是歷經劫數,待至二十一世紀中期,東西雙方都將碰到一個全球發展的天花板,如過得了關將會是一片新天地,不然則是「夜幕降臨」(Nightfall)。

但摩里斯認為進入新千年後圖表上東西兩條線已經緊貼,實在仍不免在溢美中國。他的論據是中國目前已成為美國最大的債權國,借錢給美國購買中國的廉價商品、讓美國保有目前的生活方式,兩者已變成一個合體怪物:Chimerica。但在(一)都市化;(二)耗熱量;(三)資訊技術;(四)作戰能力這四方面,中國的上升線難道真的緊貼著美國的嗎?

最後不無感慨:今日中國史學界固然鬆了綁,但像放了腳的小腳,仍不考慮中國近千年的經濟成長發生在西方之先,頂多希冀自身資本主義「萌芽」與西方的「起飛」共時,亦即在嘉靖與萬曆之際。令人苦笑的是:這個妄自菲薄的偽命題還是建築在一個「反帝」意識形態之上的哩!面臨目前全球化歷史觀的新潮流,中國難道還要充當西方中心論的最後堅堡不成!■

國民教育之爭是「一罐機緣」 .陳婉瑩

八月 14, 2012 at 09:34 | 張貼於Uncategorized | 發表留言
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國民教育之爭帶來香港民間參與改革的契機。上海交大教授夏中義編的教材,亟具發性。

 


 

陳婉瑩,香港大學新聞教授、新聞與傳媒研究中心總監,曾在美國長期從事新聞工作,一九九八年來專注高等教育,推動資訊開放和教育發展。

 

如果說香港國民教育之爭打開了一罐蟲子(a can of worms),它也打開了一罐機緣(a can of opportunities),讓香港人審視自己被誤導的價值觀,也推動港人積極提出自己的「中國論述」,而不是被動的「取消派」。

國情教育課程引起家長群情洶湧,反映了香港中小學教育的深層問題,也帶來了全民參與、改革教育的契機。國民教育之爭牽動了香港人的神經,特區政府不可能與天下的父母為敵。政府笨拙施政,沒有道德權威,也講不出能取信大眾的道理,硬推的話,可能引致比二十三條更大的管治危機。

但另一方面,反對國民教育運動目前的挑戰不是能動員多少人上街,或爭取多少簽名,而是如何超越反對和批判,提出面對現實與將來的「中國論述」。

國情教育風波的導火線是《中國模式國情專題教學手冊教材》,這小冊子由香港教育局出錢,但編得太爛,內容偏頗,教育局局長吳克儉也不敢為之護航。特首梁振英退而用《德育及國民教育課程指引》為擋箭牌,只是《指引》同樣問題百出,對所謂國民教育的內容簡單化為對國民身份的認同,脫離香港的現實,不會得到社會認同,注定是個不可能的任務。

《國民教育教學大綱》的基本理念是「國民教育以情為本」,鼓吹「國情、真情、情懷、情感」,所包含的概念層次太低,鼓吹對國家的「情懷」,就比大陸的開明人士落後太多。

上海交通大學教授夏中義在中國推動「大學人文課程」,帶領團隊編了一套三冊讀本:《人與自然》、《人與國家》、《人與世界》,二零零二年由廣西師範大學出版社出版。其中《人與國家》卷首語寫到教材的宗旨是要讓學生反思「你將如何面對故土百年滄桑,及其社會文化轉型,以期將自己塑造成迥異於卑微子民的『現代國民』」。

什麼叫合格的「國民」?《人與國家》的九章目錄勾畫了國民認知要求的脈絡:「讓記憶喚醒歷史」、「傳統與變革」、「重新點燃蒙火炬」、「革命反思錄」、「自由思想檔案」、「民主ABC」、「平等與公正」、「個人、社會、國家」、「什麼是知識分子」。在這些命題下,編者選進的中外作者有魯迅、陳獨秀、胡適、李銳,也有得到諾貝爾獎的印度經濟學家亞馬提亞·森等人,合共約一百篇文章。香港的中學何妨利用現成的材料,編個簡本給中學生?

《人與國家》的編者在導言中這樣解釋國民的精義:「及格的公民應該能夠走出專制主義造就的『順民』與『暴民』的傳統籠罩,清楚地認識個人與社會、個人與國家的關係,應該能夠清楚地意識到個人的價值與尊嚴,意識到個人不可侵犯的權利和應盡的義務。」

如果這是香港「國情教育」的宗旨,相信家長和公都不會反對。與之比較,香港的教材指引空泛膚淺偏頗,令人汗顏。

媒體越挖越深,發現香港推行國民教育早在十年前動,並非今年才開始。

《中國模式》手冊不過是把話題推向風口浪尖,反映出教育主事者思路的混亂不清:政府推行國民教育,卻在新高中課程中將中史降格為選修課程,讓香港新的一代,可以對中國歷史一竅不通。香港大學博物館總監曾對我說,到博物館參觀的中學生,有的連「唐宋元明清」的歷史常識都不懂。

其次,風波在媒體的追蹤報道下,暴露了香港教育的不平等:釐定教育政策的政府高官早就對教育制度投了不信任票,把子女在中學的時候就送到海外,或者選擇國際學校;有辦法的上英基學校,普羅大眾的子女才進地道的本地學校,要上國情教育課,這更使平民家長氣憤難平。

香港是一個自由社會,多元聲音、各種政治傾向的學校共存。辦學團體有權選擇教材,家長也有機會選擇學校。不同理念的團體,可以出版不同的教材,讓學校和家長選擇。

《中國模式》教材的問題出在其得到了政府資助,教育局有沒有資助其他國情教育教材的出版?還是只此一家?教育局是經過什麼的程序招標、評核?又如何挑選「當代中國研究所」設計教材?教材寫好後又經過什麼程序「收貨」?國民教育的經費是多少?如何分配?社會大有權要求教育局公開有關材料,保證公款使用公平、透明。

另一方面,公反對港府版的國情教育教材,特別是大媒體,也要避免輕易標籤化他人的想法或其他教材「紅色」。

我也反對雙重標準,譬如陳日君主教也發聲指責國民教育洗腦,諷刺的是天主教學校就是在主持大規模的洗腦工程,教授創造論,宣揚天主造人和天地萬物,和進化論唱對台戲。美國就規定公款支持的學校不得組織集體的宗教活動,但不限制個人信教自由。反觀香港,罕見社會質疑教會教育內容。

學生和家長組織起來參與校政,是改革教育制度的契機。參與中國改革是香港的宿命,香港和中國大陸是命運的共同體,寄望港人能超越對港版國民教育的反抗,進而建立對中國課程的共識。■

Communication

七月 11, 2012 at 14:03 | 張貼於Uncategorized | 發表留言
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Grossman shared his top 10 principles to guide communicators as they work to develop authentic communications that engage employees and build reputation.

  1. Character is the differentiator for organizations and leaders as individuals.The world is scrutinizing organizations more than before. Companies must sync their culture internally with the brand reputation they project outwardly.
  2. There is no one leadership style. The role of the communicator is to help leaders demonstrate who they really are. Grossman suggested helping leaders define themselves by getting them to articulate key messages and stories that help bring humanity to their personal style.
  3. There is a greater need to imagine and advance a vision. Provide leaders with tools such as a one-page elevator speech, frequently asked questions and key terms so they are prepared to explain the vision in a way that helps people think about it, feel strongly about it and, most importantly, act on it.
  4. People really are our greatest asset. “Organizations don’t do anything; the people in them do,” Grossman said. If employees see the value proposition, they will play a positive role in brand advocacy and sales. If they have a bad attitude, well, you get the picture.
  5. Everyone is a leader. Employees who are given autonomy and responsibility are more engaged and can play a real role in company success.
  6. Greater focus on self. People can’t lead well if they don’t know themselves. Organizations owe it to themselves to help all employees raise their competence level.
  7. Change is only constant. People need to be more comfortable with ambiguity. It’s the communicator’s job to persuade leaders to be more proactive with communications about change, even though all information is not known.
  8. Employees’ fundamental needs won’t change. Every employee has the same key questions, and if communications answers them, employees will move through change more quickly. These questions move from a “me” focus to a “we” focus. The questions:
    • What’s my job?
    • How am I doing?
    • Does anyone care about me?
    • What’s going on?
    • What’s biz strategy?
    • How are we doing?
    • What are the vision and values?
    • How can I help?
  9. More and better listening, individually and systematically. We need better and more data. For example, collect data about perceptions of the CEO and other top leaders, and track them over time.
  10. A communications system that is better honed to manage overload and inefficiency. Organizations typically add more vehicles but are reluctant to take things away. We owe it to our employees to re-evaluate vehicles and combine where it makes sense.

Sheer Line

五月 23, 2012 at 10:07 | 張貼於Uncategorized | 發表留言
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Sheer line

The projection on to the plane of symmetry of the intersection of deck with the side, or the intersection of a deck with the plane of symmetry of a ship when the deck has no camber. The amount of rise of a sheer line above its lowest point is called the Sheer, forward or aft.

runningrigging

五月 20, 2012 at 09:49 | 張貼於Uncategorized | 發表留言
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runningrigging

Running Rigging of a Merchant Sailing Ship

Running Rigging of a Merchant Sailing Ship

1.Flying jib-guys.
2. Standing jib-guys.
3 . Spritsail lifts.
4 Spritsail braces.
5 Fore-yard tackles.
6 Main-yard tackles.
7 Fore-lifts.
8 Fore-braces.
9 Main-lifts.
10. Main-braces.
11. Cross-jack lifts.
12 Cross-jack braces.
13 Slings of fore-yard.
14 Slings of main-yard.
15 Slings of cross jack-yard.
16  Fore-top-sail-lifts.
17 braces.
1 8 reef-tackles.
19 Main-top-sail-lifts.
20 braces.
21 reef-tackles.
22 Mizen-top-sail-lifts.
23 Mizen-top-sail braces. –
24- Fore-top-gallant-lifts.
25  Fore-top-gallant-braces.
26 Fore-top-gallant-halliards.
27 Main-top-gallant-lifts.
28 Main-top-gallant braces.
29 Main-top-gallant halliards.
30 Top-gallant-lifts.
31 Top-gallant .braces.
32 Top-gallant halliards
33 Fore Royal Lifts.
34 Fore Royal braces
35 Fore-royal halliards.
36 Main-royal-lifts.
37 Main-royal braces.
38 Main-royal halliards.
39 Signal halliards.
40 Mizen-royal-lifts.
41 Mizen-royal- braces.
42 Mizen-royal-halliards.
43 Fore-top-sail tie and halliards.
44- Main-top-sail tie and halliards.
45 Mizen-top-sail tie and halliards.
46 Mizen-gaff peak halliards.
47 Mizen-gaff throat halliards.
48 Mizen-gaff -vang-pendants and falls.
49 Mizen-gaff signal halliards.
50 Spanker-boom topping-lift.
51 Spanker-boom quarter guys.
52 Spanker-boom sheet.
53 Spritsail-yard.
54- Fore-yard.
55 Main-yard.
56 Cross-jack-yard.
57 Fore-top-sail-yard.
58 Main-top-sail-yard.
59 Mizen-top-sail-yard.
60 Fore-top-gallant-yard.
61 Main-top-gallant-yard.
62 Mizen-top-gallant-yard.
63 Fore-royal-yard.
64- Main-royal-yard.
65 Mizen-royal-yard.
66 Spanker boom.
67 Spanker gaff.
Running Rigging of a Merchant Sailing Ship

1.Flying jib-guys.
2. Standing jib-guys.
3 . Spritsail lifts.
4 Spritsail braces.
5 Fore-yard tackles.
6 Main-yard tackles.
7 Fore-lifts.
8 Fore-braces.
9 Main-lifts.
10. Main-braces.
11. Cross-jack lifts.
12 Cross-jack braces.
13 Slings of fore-yard.
14 Slings of main-yard.
15 Slings of cross jack-yard.
16  Fore-top-sail-lifts.
17 braces.
1 8 reef-tackles.
19 Main-top-sail-lifts.
20 braces.
21 reef-tackles.
22 Mizen-top-sail-lifts.
23 Mizen-top-sail braces. –
24- Fore-top-gallant-lifts.
25  Fore-top-gallant-braces.
26 Fore-top-gallant-halliards.
27 Main-top-gallant-lifts.
28 Main-top-gallant braces.
29 Main-top-gallant halliards.
30 Top-gallant-lifts.
31 Top-gallant .braces.
32 Top-gallant halliards
33 Fore Royal Lifts.
34 Fore Royal braces
35 Fore-royal halliards.
36 Main-royal-lifts.
37 Main-royal braces.
38 Main-royal halliards.
39 Signal halliards.
40 Mizen-royal-lifts.
41 Mizen-royal- braces.
42 Mizen-royal-halliards.
43 Fore-top-sail tie and halliards.
44- Main-top-sail tie and halliards.
45 Mizen-top-sail tie and halliards.
46 Mizen-gaff peak halliards.
47 Mizen-gaff throat halliards.
48 Mizen-gaff -vang-pendants and falls.
49 Mizen-gaff signal halliards.
50 Spanker-boom topping-lift.
51 Spanker-boom quarter guys.
52 Spanker-boom sheet.
53 Spritsail-yard.
54- Fore-yard.
55 Main-yard.
56 Cross-jack-yard.
57 Fore-top-sail-yard.
58 Main-top-sail-yard.
59 Mizen-top-sail-yard.
60 Fore-top-gallant-yard.
61 Main-top-gallant-yard.
62 Mizen-top-gallant-yard.
63 Fore-royal-yard.
64- Main-royal-yard.
65 Mizen-royal-yard.
66 Spanker boom.
67 Spanker gaff.
Running Rigging of a Merchant Sailing Ship

1.Flying jib-guys.
2. Standing jib-guys.
3 . Spritsail lifts.
4 Spritsail braces.
5 Fore-yard tackles.
6 Main-yard tackles.
7 Fore-lifts.
8 Fore-braces.
9 Main-lifts.
10. Main-braces.
11. Cross-jack lifts.
12 Cross-jack braces.
13 Slings of fore-yard.
14 Slings of main-yard.
15 Slings of cross jack-yard.
16  Fore-top-sail-lifts.
17 braces.
1 8 reef-tackles.
19 Main-top-sail-lifts.
20 braces.
21 reef-tackles.
22 Mizen-top-sail-lifts.
23 Mizen-top-sail braces. –
24- Fore-top-gallant-lifts.
25  Fore-top-gallant-braces.
26 Fore-top-gallant-halliards.
27 Main-top-gallant-lifts.
28 Main-top-gallant braces.
29 Main-top-gallant halliards.
30 Top-gallant-lifts.
31 Top-gallant .braces.
32 Top-gallant halliards
33 Fore Royal Lifts.
34 Fore Royal braces
35 Fore-royal halliards.
36 Main-royal-lifts.
37 Main-royal braces.
38 Main-royal halliards.
39 Signal halliards.
40 Mizen-royal-lifts.
41 Mizen-royal- braces.
42 Mizen-royal-halliards.
43 Fore-top-sail tie and halliards.
44- Main-top-sail tie and halliards.
45 Mizen-top-sail tie and halliards.
46 Mizen-gaff peak halliards.
47 Mizen-gaff throat halliards.
48 Mizen-gaff -vang-pendants and falls.
49 Mizen-gaff signal halliards.
50 Spanker-boom topping-lift.
51 Spanker-boom quarter guys.
52 Spanker-boom sheet.
53 Spritsail-yard.
54- Fore-yard.
55 Main-yard.
56 Cross-jack-yard.
57 Fore-top-sail-yard.
58 Main-top-sail-yard.
59 Mizen-top-sail-yard.
60 Fore-top-gallant-yard.
61 Main-top-gallant-yard.
62 Mizen-top-gallant-yard.
63 Fore-royal-yard.
64- Main-royal-yard.
65 Mizen-royal-yard.
66 Spanker boom.
67 Spanker gaff.

第92條與拉布無關

五月 18, 2012 at 11:25 | 張貼於Uncategorized | 發表留言
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第92條與拉布無關

為了配合政府的「剪布」行動,曾鈺成昨天在毫無任何預告下,破天荒引用《議事規則》第92條,扼殺議員的發言權。
《議事規則》第92條與這場拉布戰無直接關係。條例只列明,「對於本議事規則內未有作出規定的事宜,立法會所須遵循的方式及程序由立法會主席決定;如立法會主席認為適合,可參照其他立法機關的慣例及程序處理」。曾鈺成就是利用規則內賦予他的「特權」,粗暴叫停議員發言。這次是回歸後立法會主席首次引用此條文,曾鈺成稱不記得是否首次引用,但說應無先例。

匯豐亞太區業務策略及經濟顧問梁兆基認為,希臘退出歐元區機會相當大

五月 18, 2012 at 10:41 | 張貼於Uncategorized | 發表留言
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匯豐亞太區業務策略及經濟顧問梁兆基認為,希臘退出歐元區機會相當大,歐元區各成員國亦正為此做準備,希望阻止負面影響蔓延到意大利及西班牙。他指,西班牙銀行信貸評級被降級,是反映銀行實力減弱及融資困難,這將增加西班牙退出歐元區風險。 梁兆基指,雖然外圍金融危機會令港股波動,但相信對本港實體經濟影響不大,港元匯價及拆息市場仍穩定,亦未見資金流走,又指本港銀行體系穩健,資本狀況良好,情況不能與九八年的亞洲金融風暴相提並論。 他指,匯豐維持對本港今年經濟增長百分之三的預測,估計出口僅有單位數增幅,消費亦會放緩,而且下半年外圍極不明朗,暫難言首季經濟是否已見底。不過,本港息率低及資金量充裕,相信仍可支撐經濟。基於商品價格料略為回落,認為本港滯脹風險不大。內地則有可能再減銀行存款準備金率,而信貸需求疲弱甚至令人民銀行有可能減息。

Naval terminology

五月 12, 2012 at 21:35 | 張貼於Uncategorized | 發表留言
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Above Board

The term today means someone who is honest, forthright. It’s origin comes from the days when pirates would masquerade as honest merchantmen, hiding most of their crew behind the bulwark (side of the ship on the upper deck). They hid below the boards.


Ahoy!

This old traditional greeting for hailing other vessels was originally a Viking battle cry.

 


Between the Devil and the Deep

In wooden ships, the “devil" was the longest seam of the ship. It ran from the bow to the stern. When at sea and the “devil" had to be caulked, the sailor sat in a bo’sun’s chair to do so. He was suspended between the “devil" and the sea — the “deep" — a very precarious position, especially when the ship was underway.

 


Chewing the Fat

“God made the vittles but the devil made the cook," was a popular saying used by seafaring men in the 19th century when salted beef was staple diet aboard ship.

This tough cured beef, suitable only for long voyages when nothing else was cheap or would keep as well (remember, there was no refrigeration), required prolonged chewing to make it edible. Men often chewed one chunk for hours, just as it were chewing gum and referred to this practice as “chewing the fat."

 


Crow’s Nest

The raven, or crow, was an essential part of the Vikings’ navigation equipment. These land-lubbing birds were carried on aboard to help the ship’s navigator determine where the closest land lay when weather prevented sighting the shore. In cases of poor visibility, a crow was released and the navigator plotted a course corresponding to the bird’s flight path because the crow invariably headed towards land.

The Norsemen carried the birds in a cage secured to the top of the mast. Later on, as ships grew and the lookout stood his watch in a tub located high on the main mast, the name “crow’s nest" was given to this tub. While today’s Navy still uses lookouts in addition to radars, etc., the crow’s nest is a thing of the past.

 


Cup of Joe

Josephus Daniels (18 May 1862-15 January 1948) was appointed Secretary of the Navy by President Woodrow Wilson in 1913. Among his reforms of the Navy were inaugurating the practice of making 100 Sailors from the Fleet eligible for entrance into the Naval Academy, the introduction of women into the service, and the abolishment of the officers’ wine mess. From that time on, the strongest drink aboard Navy ships could only be coffee and over the years, a cup of coffee became known as “a cup of Joe".

 


Devil to Pay

Today the expression “devil to pay" is used primarily to describe having an unpleasant result from some action that has been taken, as in someone has done something they shouldn’t have and, as a result, “there will be the devil to pay." Originally, this expression described one of the unpleasant tasks aboard a wooden ship.

The “devil" was the wooden ship’s longest seam in the hull. Caulking was done with “pay" or pitch (a kind of tar). The task of “paying the devil" (caulking the longest seam) by squatting in the bilges was despised by every seaman.

 

 


Eight Bells

Aboard Navy ships, bells are struck to designate the hours of being on watch. Each watch is four hours in length. One bell is struck after the first half-hour has passed, two bells after one hour has passed, three bells after an hour and a half, four bells after two hours, and so forth up to eight bells are struck at the completion of the four hours. Completing a watch with no incidents to report was “Eight bells and all is well."

The practice of using bells stems from the days of the sailing ships. Sailors couldn’t afford to have their own time pieces and relied on the ship’s bells to tell time. The ship’s boy kept time by using a half-hour glass. Each time the sand ran out, he would turn the glass over and ring the appropriate number of bells.

 


Fathom

Fathom was originally a land measuring term derived from the Ango-Saxon word “faetm" meaning to embrace. In those days, most measurements were based on average size of parts of the body, such as the hand (horses are still measured this way) or the foot (that’s why 12 inches are so named). A fathom is the average distance from fingertip to fingertip of the outstretched arms of a man — about six feet. Since a man stretches out his arms to embrace his sweetheart, Britain’s Parliament declared that distance be called a “fathom" and it be a unit of measure. A fathom remains six feet. The word was also used to describe taking the measure or “to fathom" something. Today, of course, when one is trying to figure something out, they are trying to “fathom" it.

 


Image of ship with blue stripe around hull

Feeling Blue

If you are sad and describe yourself as “feeling blue," you are using a phrase coined from a custom among many old deepwater sailing ships. If the ship lost the captain or any of the officers during its voyage, she would fly blue flags and have a blue band painted along her entire hull when returning to home port.

 


Forecastle

The appropriate pronunciation for this word is fo’ksul. The forecastle is the forward part of the main deck. It derives its name from the days of Viking galleys when wooden castles were built on the forward and after parts the main deck from which archers and other fighting men could shoot arrows and throw spears, rocks, etc.

 


Galley

The galley is the kitchen of the ship. The best explanation as to its origin is that it is a corruption of “gallery". Ancient sailors cooked their meals on a brick or stone gallery laid amidships.

 


Gun Salutes

Gun salutes were first fired as an act of good faith. In the days when it took so long to reload a gun, it was a proof of friendly intention when the ship’s cannon were discharged upon entering port.

 


Head

The “head" aboard a Navy ship is the bathroom. The term comes from the days of sailing ships when the place for the crew to relieve themselves was all the way forward on either side of the bowsprit, the integral part of the hull to which the figurehead was fastened.

 


He Knows the Ropes

In the very early days, this phrase was written on a seaman’s discharge to indicate that he was still a novice. All he knew about being a sailor was just the names and uses of the principal ropes (lines). Today, this same phrase means the opposite — that the person fully knows and understands the operation (usually of the organization).

 


Image of Sailor scrubbing deck with Holystone

Holystone

The last Navy ships with teak decks were the battleships, now since decommissioned. Teak, and other wooden decks, were scrubbed with a piece of sandstone, nicknamed at one time by an anonymous witty sailor as the “holystone." It was so named because since its use always brought a man to his knees, it must be holy! However, holystones were banned by the Navy by General Order Number 215 of 5 March 1931 because they wore down the expensive teak decks too fast.

 


Hunky-Dory

The term meaning everything is O.K. was coined from a street named “Honki-Dori" in Yokohama, Japan. Since the inhabitants of this street catered to the pleasures of sailors, it is easy to understand why the street’s name became synonymous for anything that is enjoyable or at least satisfactory. And, the logical follow-on is “Okey-dokey."

 


Listless

Today it means to be dull or without pep. It comes from the days of sail when a ship was becalmed and rode on an even keel …. without the port or starbord list experienced under a good breeze. No wind, no list; no list, lifeless.

 


Log Book

In the early days of sailing ships, the ship’s records were written on shingles cut from logs. These shingles were hinged and opened like a book. The record was called the “log book." Later on, when paper was readily available and bound into books, the record maintained it name.

 


Long Shot

Today it’s a gambling term for an event that would take an inordinate amount of luck. It’s origins are nautical. Because ships’ guns in early days were very inaccurate except at close quarters, it was an extremely lucky shot that would find its target from any great distance.


Mayday

“Mayday" is the internationally recognized voice radio signal for ships and people in serious trouble at sea. Made official in 1948, it is an anglicizing of the French m’aidez, “help me".

 


No Quarter

“No quarter given" means that one gives his opponent no opportunity to surrender. It stems from the old custom by which officers, upon surrender, could ransom themselves by paying one quarter of a year’s pay.


Pea Coat

Sailors who have to endure pea-soup weather often don their pea coats but the coat’s name isn’t derived from the weather. The heavy topcoat worn in cold, miserable weather by seafaring men was once tailored from pilot cloth — a heavy, course, stout kind of twilled blue cloth with the nap on one side. The cloth was sometimes called P-cloth for the initial letter of “pilot" and the garment made from it was called a p-jacket — later, a pea coat. The term has been used since 1723 to denote coats made from that cloth.

 


Port holes

The word “port hole" originated during the reign of Henry VI of England (1485). King Henry insisted on mounting guns too large for his ship and the traditional methods of securing these weapons on the forecastle and aftcastle could not be used.

A French shipbuilder named James Baker was commissioned to solve the problem. He put small doors in the side of the ship and mounted the cannon inside the ship. These doors protected the cannon from weather and were opened when the cannon were to be used. The French word for “door" is “porte" which was later Anglicized to “port" and later went on to mean any opening in the ship’s side, whether for cannon or not.

 


Scuttlebutt

The origin of the word “scuttlebutt," which is nautical parlance for a rumor, comes from a combination of “scuttle" — to make a hole in the ship’s hull and thereby causing her to sink —- and “butt" — a cask or hogshead used in the days of wooden ships to hold drinking water. The cask from which the ship’s crew took their drinking water — like a water fountain — was the “scuttlebutt". Even in today’s Navy a drinking fountain is referred to as such. But, since the crew used to congregate around the “scuttlebutt", that is where the rumors about the ship or voyage would begin. Thus, then and now, rumors are talk from the “scuttlebutt" or just “scuttlebutt".

 


S.O.S.

Contrary to popular notion, the letters S.O.S. do not stand for “Save Our Ship" or “Save Our Souls". They were selected to indicate a distress because, in Morse code, these letters and their combination create an unmistakable sound pattern.

 


Splice the Main Brace

In the age of sail, ship’s rigging was a favorite target during sea battles because destroying the opponent’s ability to maneuver or get away would put you at obvious advantage. Therefore, the first and most important task after a battle was to repair damaged rigging (also known as lines- but never “rope"!). Examples of lines include braces (lines that adjust the angle at which a sail is set in relation to the wind) and stays (lines supporting the masts).
The main brace was the principal line controlling the rotation of the main sail. Splicing this line was one of the most difficult chores aboard ship, and one on which the ship’s safety depended. It was the custom, after the main brace was properly spliced, to serve grog to the entire crew. Thus, today, after a hard day (or, not so hard day), the phrase has become an invitation to have a drink.

 


Starboard

The Vikings called the side of their ship its board, and they placed the steering oar, the “star" on the right side of the ship, thus that side became known as the “star board." It’s been that way ever since. And, because the oar was in the right side, the ship was tied to the dock at the left side. This was known as the loading side or “larboard". Later, it was decided that “larboard" and “starboard" were too similar, especially when trying to be heard over the roar of a heavy sea, so the phrase became the “side at which you tied up to in port" or the “port" side.

 


Taken Aback

One of the hazards faced in days of sailing ships has been incorporated into English to describe someone who has been jolted by unpleasant news. We say that person has been “taken aback." The person is at a momentary loss; unable to act or even to speak. A danger faced by sailing ships was for a sudden shift in wind to come up (from a sudden squall), blowing the sails back against the masts, putting the ship in grave danger of having the masts break off and rendering the ship totally helpless. The ship was taken aback.

 


Three Mile Limit

The original three-mile limit was the recognized distance from a nation’s shore over which that nation had jurisdiction. This border of international waters or the “high seas" was established because, at the time this international law was established, three miles was the longest range of any nation’s most powerful guns, and therefore, the limit from shore batteries at which they could enforce their laws. (International law and the 1988 Territorial Sea Proclamation established the “high seas" border at the 12-mile limit.) 
Illustration of 16th century soldiers at shore gun emplacement

 


Three Sheets to the Wind

We use the term “three sheets to the wind" to describe someone who has too much to drink. As such, they are often bedraggled with perhaps shirttails out, clothes a mess. The reference is to a sailing ship in disarray, that is with sheets (lines — not “ropes" — that adjust the angle at which a sail is set in relation to the wind ) flapping loosely in the breeze.

 


Took the wind out of his sails

Often we use “took the wind out of his sails" to describe getting the best of an opponent in an argument. Originally it described a battle maneuver of sailing ships. One ship would pass close to its adversary and on its windward side. The ship and sails would block the wind from the second vessel, causing it to lose headway. Losing motion meant losing maneuverability and the ability to carry on a fight.

 


Wallop

When the French burned the town of Brighton, England, in the 1500s, King Henry VIII send Admiral Wallop to retaliate and teach the French a lesson. He so thoroughly wrecked the French coasts, that ever since, a devestating blow is said to be an “awful wallop."


Watches

Traditionally, a 24-hour day is divided into seven watches. These are: midnight to 4 a.m. [0000-0400], the mid-watch; 4 to 8 a.m. [0400-0800], morning watch; 8 a.m. to noon [0800-1200], forenoon watch; noon to 4 p.m. [1200-1600], afternoon watch; 4 to 6 p.m. [1600-1800] first dog watch; 6 to 8 p.m. [1800-2000], second dog watch; and, 8 p.m. to midnight [2000-2400], evening watch. The half hours of the watch are marked by the striking the bell an appropriate number of times.

Reviewed: 15 September 2009

外匯儲備資產,為2,956億美元

五月 8, 2012 at 10:57 | 張貼於Uncategorized | 發表留言

香港金融管理局宣佈,香港於2012年4月底的官方外匯儲備資產,為2,956億美元,多於3月底的2,946億美元。 外匯儲備資產總額,相當於香港流通貨幣的8倍多,約佔港元貨幣供應M3的55%。

網名「珍珠」

五月 5, 2012 at 10:45 | 張貼於Uncategorized | 發表留言
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江南富庶地南京民風柔順,除了水滸「拚命三郎」石秀,再無出過英雄。加之屢遭屠城(洪秀全、曾國荃、日本鬼),又不幸淪為「國民黨巢穴」,滿城梧桐濃蔭下,「夾着尾巴做人」成了每個市民默記的家訓。豈料龍年暮春,紫金山麓一聲霹靂,躍出個光彩四射「拚命嬌娃」女英豪,那就是土生土長南京丫頭何培蓉,網名「珍珠」的金陵女俠。她奮不顧身,大智大勇,飛車千里,虎穴救盲俠,一曲勝利大逃亡凱歌震驚全球。
陳光誠因之「進入」美使館,給北京「中美戰略經濟對話」送上份尷尬禮物,但阿濤黑馬心有靈犀。滯館六日後的五月二日,在中方通過陳妻轉達的恐嚇下,在駱家輝大使殷勤游說下,在希拉莉保證長期關注下,陳「自行離開」使館前往醫院,又隨即要求全家出國。經醫院「過冷河」再經一番折騰後赴美,當是中美雙雙保顏面默契,相信中方不至做得太絕。
但是五天前,四月廿七日中午十一時,身處丹麥的楊建利正與萬里外的何培蓉網絡對話,突然熒屏驚見:他們來了,國保在敲我的門……一切戛然而止。楊不知的是,警員闖入前霎那間,女俠還搶發出一條告急文:可有山東以及臨近網友,請開車沿二○五國道,尋找可貴(因正當防衞而遭追捕的陳光誠姪兒)提供幫助,拜託大家了!我已經不能出發了……大難臨頭,她心中卻掛住別人。
明眸皓齒,身段婀娜,笑靨親和。在城南甘雨巷街坊眼中,蓉蓉是一個愛心爆棚到有些儍的美女。廣為傳笑的軼事是,多年前半夜貓聲凄厲,她竟致電報警,要公安拯救危難中的貓咪。七二年三月出生,中華職業教育中心英文教師,雲英未嫁。但絕無「剩女」幽怨,更無「盛女」虛浮,她是一位矢志奉獻國族的「聖女」。
從愛心姑娘到金陵女俠,是○八川震震醒了她。地動山搖間,女義工蓉蓉被比天災更恐怖的人禍嚇呆了,調查豆腐渣校舍案譚作人等身陷寃獄,更令她痛心疾首、大徹大悟,從此義無反顧踏上公義維權荊棘路。
有感異議者「多說少做」,女俠的座右銘是「敢想不敢為者,終困牢籠」,打正旗號當行動派。去年曾六闖臨沂探盲俠,次次打得鼻青臉腫無怨無悔。如今,陳光誠焦灼中等待佳音,自稱救陳案「主犯」郭玉閃以及參與者胡佳,「問話」數十小時都釋放了,反而知名度較低的「協從」何培蓉,從此音訊全無,情況令人擔憂。
中土凶兆頻現,地下黨治下香港必成池魚。何培蓉敢想敢為的奇蹟,給桎梏中的沉默國人和徬徨的港人帶來希望。讓我們挺身營救金陵女俠,或示威遊行、或聯署簽名、或電郵「相關部門」,齊齊多方施壓,逼令中共釋放何培蓉!
 
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